By Ingersol 05.04.2011 00:47
Tamil cinema is the Tamil language filmmaking industry, based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is based in Chennai Kodambakkam area, where Tamil language feature films are produced, which has led to a reference to the district and industry as Kollywood, a portmanteau of the words Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Tamil cinema is known for being India's second largest film industry in terms of revenue and worldwide distribution with its main audiences being people of the four South Indian states.
Silent movies were produced in Chennai since 1916 and the era of talkies dawned in 1931 with the film Kalidas. By the end of the 1930s, the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939. Tamil Nadu cinema has had a profound effect on the film making industries of India, with Chennai becoming a hub for the filmmaking industries of other languages, including Telugu cinema, Malayalam cinema, Kannada cinema, Hindi cinema, Sinhalese cinema and Sri Lankan Tamil cinema in the 1900s, and today includes post-production services for Bollywood. Tamil language films are further made in other countries. Today, Tamil films are distributed to various overseas theatres in South East Asia and North America, including Japan and South Korea; as well as Southern Africa, Western Europe, and other significant Tamil diaspora regions.
The Chennai film industry has produced and released over 5000 motion pictures since the release of its first sound film, Kalidas, in 1931. More than 140 Tamil language Films released in 2010.
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore. It is the first Indian language to be declared as a classical language by the government of India in 2004. Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in Malaysia and Mauritius as well as emigrant communities around the world.
Tamil people are also called Tamils, tamiḻar or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 19th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada, Réunion (France) and the UK.
Sri Lankan Tamil people or Ceylon Tamils, are a section of Tamil people native to the South Asia island state of Sri Lanka. According to anthropological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils have lived on the island around the 2nd century BCE. Sri Lankan Tamils have historically migrated to find work, notably during the British colonial period. Since the beginning of the civil war in 1983, more than 800,000 Tamils have been displaced within Sri Lanka, and many have left the country for destinations such as India, Canada, and Europe. Since the end of the civil war in 2009, a number of Sri Lankan Tamils have sought refuge in countries like Canada and Australia.
The Tamil diaspora is a term used to denote people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka origin who have settled in many parts of the rest of India or in other regions, particularly Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Middle East, Réunion, South Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles, Fiji, Guyana, Burma, Trinidad and Tobago, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Europe, Australia, United States and Canada
The Tamil people number around 74 million in the world. Of that, there are about 63,000,000 in India; about 3,600,000 live in Sri Lanka; about 1,500,000 live in Malaysia; and about 250,000 live in Singapore. The remaining Tamil people live in many other places.
Tamil literature has existed for over two thousand years. The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BCE. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from the 300 BCE – 300 CE. Tamil language inscriptions written c. 1st century BCE and 2nd century CE have been discovered in Egypt, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The two earliest manuscripts from India, to be acknowledged and registered by UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 & 2005 were in Tamil. More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions – about 55,000 – found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language. The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led it to being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".
Tamil dynasty ( The Chola dynasty ) was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Hindu dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century AD.